Cultural dimensions — Geert Hofstede
- Individualism-collectivism => Asch + Bond and Smith + Rime et al.
- Masculinity-femininity => Mead + Errington and Gewertz
Describes cultures loosely structured to tightly integrated. Degree which action is beneficial to the group or individual.
Individualism: e.g. USA, Canada, UK (usually countries in colder climates) — Personal is emphasized more than social persons viewed as unique and self-expression is highly valued. Competitiveness and self-sufficiency are highly regarded.
Collectivism: e.g. China, Japan (usually countries with higher birthrates) — social is emphasized rather than individual, self defined as long relationships and obligations, self-expression is not encouraged, more emphasis on achieving group harmony than individual achievement, therefore conformity levels are higher compared to western countries.
However, since Japan’s birthrate decreased, the country in general became more individualistic. Halim and Chew — Singapore, Japan performance attribution changed, less modesty bias.
Culture’s dominant values are either assertive or nurturing.
Masculinity: Aggressive, power-orientated, dominant
dominant partner in marriage, less close relationships and keep their emotions to themselves more.
Femininity: emphasis on interpersonal harmony, often weaker and more passive